Vol. 1 No. 6 (2019): Volume 1, Issue 6, year 2019

A Cohesive 3-R Approach for Domestic Water Treatment

NeethaDelphin Mary K
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SRS College of Engineering & Technology, Kuppanur, Salem-636 122, Tamil Nadu, India.
Murali Mohan N
Associate Professor, Department of Civil engineering, K.S.R College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal-637 215, Tamil Nadu, India.
Vijayalakshmi P
Scientist, Environmental Science, Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Published November 2, 2019
  • Grey water,
  • Irrigation,
  • Reclamation,
  • Electro-Oxidation,
  • Electro-Coagulation
How to Cite
K, N. M., N, M. M., & P, V. (2019). A Cohesive 3-R Approach for Domestic Water Treatment. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, 1(6), 597-603. Retrieved from https://mapletreejournals.com/index.php/irjmt/article/view/339


Water is critical for all life on the planet. Rapid industrialization and urbanization has caused India to face a water crisis since it has only 4 percent of the world’s water resources. In order to resolve the crisis, India has to look for alternative water resources which may include rainwater harvesting, grey water and sewage reuse and desalination. Grey water is defined as waste water generated from the bathroom, laundry and kitchens. Nearly 70 percent of the water used in households results in grey water which can be treated using simple technology and reused. Reuse of grey water reduces the fresh water requirements and reduces the amount of sewage sent to treatment plants. An integrated approach is needed to manage the water and waste water treatment so that water supply is kept clean and waste water is recycled for beneficial use in agriculture and industry. Water and energy are important resources in the 21st century. Water is required to supply energy, and energy is required to supply water. The reclamation of wastewater can contribute significantly to the conservation of water and energy resources. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can relieve water scarcity. Reclaimed wastewater can be substituted for natural water. Wastewater is now extensively recognized as an important source of water in water-scarce countries. In recent years not only the threats of improper greywater management have been recognized; there is an increasing international recognition that greywater reuse, if properly done, has a great potential as alternative water source for purposes such as irrigation, toilet flushing, car washing and others.


Download data is not yet available.


1. S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Laser Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M. Osgood, Jr., Ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
2. J. Breckling, Ed., The Analysis of Directional Time Series: Applications to Wind Speed and Direction, ser. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1989, vol. 61.
3. S. Zhang, C. Zhu, J. K. O. Sin, and P. K. T. Mok, “A novel ultrathin elevated channel low-temperature poly-Si TFT,” XXX Electron Device Lett., vol. 20, pp. 569–571, Nov. 1999.
4. M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, “High resolution fiber distributed measurements with coherent OFDR,” in Proc. ECOC’00, 2000, paper 11.3.4, p. 109.
5. R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digital-to-RF converter,” U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997.
6. Ana Kelly Marinoski, Ricardo Forgiarini Rupp, EnedirGhisi, “Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman, Journal of Environmental Management 206 (2018) 28-39
7. Guillermo J. Rincon , Enrique J. La Motta , “Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman, Journal of Environmental Management 144 (2014) 42-50
8. HeikkiSärkkä, AmitBhatnagar, Mika Sillanpää, “Recent developments of electro-oxidation in water treatment—A review” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jeacJournal of Electro analytical Chemistry 754 (2015) 46–56
9. John Hoslett, Theoni Maria Massara, SimosMalamis, Darem Ahmad, Inge van den Boogaert, EvinaKatsou, BalsamAhmad, Heba Ghazal, Stefaan Simons, LuizWrobel, HussamJouhara, “Surface water filtration using granular media and membranes: A review” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/scitotenv, Science of the Total Environment 639 (2018) 1268–1282
10. Lambe,J.S, R.S. Chougule, Greywater – “Treatment and Reuse” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684, PP: 20-26 www.iosrjournals.org
11. Mohan.S, Sivakumar.C.T, Tamilchelvan.P, Vidhya.K, Muralimohan.N“Reclamation of Nanjarayan lake by using Bioclean STP treatment Tirupur corporation in Tamilnadu, India”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research,(IJSER) ISSN 2229-5518 Vol.7 No.11 , pp.no.128-134,Nov- 2016.
12. Mohan.S, Vidhya.K, Sivakumar.C.T, Shanmugavadivu.V, Devi.M, Mathinagalaxmi.C, “ A study on Solid Waste Management using Biomethanation Technology, Pallipalayam Municipality in Namakkal District, TamilNadu, India”, Indian Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.17(1), pp. 137-141, 2017.
13. Mohan.S, Vidhya.K, Sivakumar.C.T, Shanmugavadivu.V, Kumaresh.M, published a paper in National journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, “Production of biogas by using anaerobic sludge digestion of sago waste”, ISSN: 2455-9040, Volume 3 issue 1, January 2018, Pg.No-1147-1154.
14. Murugananthan.M, G. BhaskarRaju, S. Prabhakar, “Removal of sulfide, sulfate and sulfite ions by electro coagulation” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jhazmat, Journal of Hazardous Materials B109 (2004) 37–44.
15. PavelKrystynik, PetrKluson, Duarte Novaes Tito, “Water treatment process intensification by combination of electrochemical and photochemical methods” Journal homepage: www.elsev ier.com/locate/cep, Chemical Engineering and Processing 94 (2015) 85–92.
16. RiffatShaheed, Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar, Ahmed El-Shafie, “Ensuring water security by utilizing roof-harvested rainwater and lake water treated with a low-cost integrated adsorption-filtration system”Journal homepage: http://www.waterjournal.cn,Water Science and Engineering 2017, 10(2): 115e124.
17. Runye Zhu, Chuyin Yang, Mingming Zhou, Jiade Wang, “Industrial park wastewater deeply treated and reused by a novel electrochemical oxidation reactor” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cej, Chemical Engineering Journal 260 (2015) 427–433.
18. Santos.C , F. Taveira-Pinto , C.Y. Cheng , D. Leite , Development of an experimental system for greywater reuse journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/desal, Available online 17 November 2011
19. SibelBarıs, OzgeTurkay, “Domestic greywater treatment by electrocoagulation using hybrid electrode combinations” Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jwpe, Journal of Water Process Engineering 10 (2016) 56–66
20. Sivakumar.C.T, Tamilchelvan.P, Mohan.S, “Impact of solid waste landfill on ground water quality in Erumapalyam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol.10, No.9, pp.9198-9203, 2015.
21. Sivakumar.C.T. Indian Journal of public health Research & Development (An International Journal) “Fabrication of sewage cleaning system”ISSN-0976-2045(Print).ISSN-0976-5506(Electronic) Volume 9, Number2, February 2018.Pg.No-459.
22. Sonali Manna, “Treatment of Gray Water for Reusing in Non-potable Purpose to Conserve Water in India” International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences ISSN 0973-6077 Volume 13, Number 8 (2018), pp. 703-716